Our region is the second largest federal subject after the Sakha Republic: its area is 2,339,700 square kilometers (903,400 square miles),which is 13% of the country's total territory. The region is also known under different names such as Siberia along the Yenisei River, Central Siberia and Middle Siberia, which are often mentioned in the historical, geographical and geological literature.
The region length from north to south is 2800 km. The length from west to east varies: at the widest part (70º N) it is 1250 km, at the narrowest (51º N) up to 200 km. The territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai is quite heterogeneous in the natural, economic, ethnic relations and its density.
Russia has almost all landscape-geographical zones: tundra, forest tundra, taiga(in all its latitude varieties), forest-steppe, steppe, alpine meadows. The alternation of lowlands, highlands, basins and mountain ridges creates even more unique landscape varieties, typical for the area.
The climate is strongly continental with large temperature variations during the year (from - 40 °C to + 45 °C).The vast territory makes it evenmore diverse. The northern and central districts of the region are different with long winter and short hot summer in the central part and chill ones in the north, which lasts about 50 days. These districts have frequentprecipitation. The south of the region has moderately severe snowless winter and warm summer (about 120 days).
The territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: Arctic, Subarctic, and moderate. Therefore, there are not only northern and southern zones with their climate characteristics, but also western and eastern ones separated by the valley of the Yenisei River.
The average temperature in January is −36 °C (−33 °F) in the north and −18 °C (0 °F) in the south. The average temperature in July is +10 °C (50 °F) in the north and +20 °C (68 °F) in the south. The annual precipitation is 316 millimeters or 12.4 inches. Most part (600-1000 millimetersor 23.6-39.3 inches) falls in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains. Snow covers the region from early November until late March. The peaks of the Western and EasternSayan higher than 2,400–2,600 meters and those of the Putorana Plateauand Byrranga Mountains higher than 1,000–1,300 m are covered with permanent snow. Such mountains are often called “Belki” which is literally the white ones.
The region population is about 3 million people that are very unevenly spread across its territory. The population density is 1.3 persons/square kilometer(3.1/square miles). It is one of the lowest among all the subjects of the Russian Federation. Most partof the region(to the north of the Angara River) is home to only 20% of people, and the density here is less than one person/square kilometer. The most densely populated part (5-8 persons/square kilometer) is a narrow area along the Trans-Siberian Railway, passing through Krasnoyarsk from west to east. The city population is 74%, the rural and taiga population is 26%.
The national diversity of the region is presented with more than 100 nationalities that feel like home here. Most of the population (about 2.5 million) is Russian-speaking people from beyond the Urals. They were coming here for almost 400 years of the development of Siberia. There are also people of the Caucasus and Central Asia, the Germans and the Tatars, the Nenets, theEnets, the Evenki, theNganasan, the Khakassia, the Tuva, the Dolgan, and theYakut. Native peoples are represented by the Keto orthe Yenisei Ostiaks (a little more than 1,000 people).
More than 95% of localities, nearly all of the industry and agriculture are concentrated in the central and southern parts of Krasnoyarsk Krai except Norilsk, Dudinka, Igarka, Talnakh and Kayerkan. Our region is urbanized, two thirds of the population lives in cities and towns (25 localities). The largest among them are Krasnoyarsk (962,500 people), Norilsk (202,000 people), Achinsk (110,000 people), Kansk (96,000 people). Besidethe capitalof the region,you may find the following old towns interesting in terms of urban tourism: Yeniseisk, Minusinsk, Zheleznogorsk (a closed town), Zelenogorsk (a closed town), the Shushenskoye village, Divnogorsk (hydro engineers’ town). Fans of industrial tourism are strongly recommended to visit the town of Artyomovsk and the village of Kedroviy.
The modern history of our region started with the decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of 7 December 1934, according to which, due to downsizing of the West Siberian and East Siberian, Krasnoyarsk Krai was formed out of 52 districts. Its borders were almost coincided with the formerYenisei province borders. Khakassia autonomous region seceded from Krasnoyarsk Krai in 1991 and became a republic.Taimyr and Evenkiareceived independent status in 1993. However, on 1 January 2007, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous region and Evenk Autonomous regionwere re-united in the new subject of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kraiwithin the boundaries of three pre-existing regions). Autonomous regions became part of the new region as Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets and Evenk districts.
The vast territory of the region with its complex geological structure is literally saturated with unique minerals. Their variety and volume are the natural base of a diversified economy. A huge part of the regional subsoil has not been developed yet. Inaccessibility of most territories lets us save them for the future. The region is rich with iron ores, nonferrous and rare metals, gold, aluminum raw materials, semi-precious stones, common salt, and phosphates.
Due to significant reserves of metal ores, the availability of energy resources and heavy industry remaining here from the Soviet times, Krasnoyarsk Krai is the absolute leaderof developing a commercial product per capita among the country’s regions (3.2% of total industrial output in Russia). The leading industries are ferrous metallurgy, energy, engineering, wood, pulp and paper, chemical, nuclear, construction, communication and transport. Central and southern districts of the region successfully supply its residents and nearest neighbors with the products of agriculture and animal husbandry.
All types of education existing in Russia are presented in Krasnoyarsk Krai. The number of preschools is 933. Among them, there are private kindergartens and family childcare homes. A lot of attention is paid to the development of additional education: family education centers, leisure and creativity centers, and entertaining sites.
There are 1265 institutions of general education, including 19lyceums,35gymnasiums, 41 schools with in-depth study of specific subjects,8 cadet corps, and 2 Mariinsky women's gymnasiums.
Primary and secondary professional education includes 79 educational institutions where you can get 160 professions and specialties.
Higher education is provided in 11 public universities and 2 private ones.The branches of the universities from other cities complement the system.Our region has the second highest number of students in Russia after Novosibirsk Oblast.
In Krasnoyarsk Krai, there are such cultural institutions as: 124 children's music, art, dance and art schools; 49 museums (including one of the first in Siberia Minusinskiy and Yeniseiskiy regional museums and the only in the world Museum of Permafrost in Igarka); 148 movie theaters and film projectors; Krasnoyarsk circus; 1192 regional state and municipal libraries (our libraries rank third in Russia after Moscow and Tatarstan); 12 professional theaters and Krasnoyarsk regional philharmonic.
The cultural life of the region has been linked tothe fates of many famous Russians. Georgiy Zhzhonovserved in Norilsk Polar Drama Theater named after Vladimir Mayakovskiy. Innokentiy Smoktunovskiy studied in the studio and worked in Krasnoyarsk Pushkin Drama Theatre. Dmitri Hvorostovskiy sang in Krasnoyarsk State Theater of Opera and Ballet. A famous writer Vasiliy Yan (Yanchevetskiy) put his plays on a performance and acted in them on the stage of Minusinsk Drama Theater.
Many cities and towns of our region can boast that they have their own unique and original look. Judge for yourself: the old towns of Yeniseisk and Minusinsk retaining the original layout and rich architectural heritage, interesting buildingsof Kansk and Achinsk built in the Siberian Art Nouveau style, the civil and religious buildings made of wood or stone in the central and southern areas of the region. Even a Siberian house can be an object of admiration. You can find the old cottages, which were built without a nail by the first settlers 300 years ago, in the villages near the Angara area, the Yeniseyskiy and Severo-Yeniseyskiy districts. Overall, there are 455 monuments of architecture and urbanism in the region, built in the 18th-20th centuries. All of them are under state protection.
Perhaps you will be interested in the architecture of the new Soviet towns Norilsk and Zheleznogorsk. Built by St. Petersburg architects, the historical buildings of both towns remind the city on the Neva. Most of the old buildings remained in Krasnoyarsk. They perfectly fit into the modern eclecticism of glass and concrete, giving the city a unique coloring and making it a center of urban tourism in the region.
Sights of our region are admired throughout the world. Every year, UNESCO defines natural or man-made objects, the priorities in relation to which are the preservation and promotion because of their special cultural historical or environmental significance. Today, the list of World Heritage has 911 objects, and one of them is on the territory of the region. Putorana State Nature Reserve was added to the list in 2010. It is located on the Putorana Plateau in the northwestern part of the Central Siberian Plateau, to the south of the Taimyr Peninsula. The area of the reserve is 1,773,300 hectares. UNESCO's decision was based on the fact that there are a perfect blend of subarctic and arctic ecosystems (virgin taiga, tundra forests, arctic wilderness, pristine river and lake systems) in this isolated mountain ridge.Mass reindeer migration is of particular interest. More than one million individuals move across the tundra every year. From the air, it looks like a few kilometers wide river.
There are three regional objects included in the list of candidates. Therefore, it is possible that the World Heritage list will be added with the "Krasnoyarsk Stolby" reserve,Krasnoyarsk railway bridgeof L.D. Proskuryakov (the object back was dismantled and transferred for metal use in 2007) and historical buildings of Yeniseisk town.
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